Detailed description of numerical control hydraulic die forging hammer

5.1 Hydraulic principle of numerical control hydraulic die forging hammer
Numerical control hydraulic die hammer used pump - accumulator drive, the lower cavity of fuel tank is connected with normal pressure, hydraulic system controls upper cavity separately. Open filling valve (also known as hit valve), the high pressure oil from pump, accumulator and lower cavity through differential circuit, total of three parts enter into the upper cavity to achieve the hammer head fall acceleratively and hit stroke. Once the upper cavity release pressure, the hammer head return back rapidly. The precise control of hit energy is achieved by numeralization control, which is decided by the length of time of control valve closing.

After the main pump starts up, filling oil to the accumulator make hammer head lift up, the lower cavity of main fuel tank is connected with accumulator, which makes the hammer head to the upper limit, hammer is lifting status. When blowing down, through the control valve closing time to control the hit energy, make oil of lower cavity return back into the upper cavity, high-pressure oil of accumulator pump to achieve hitting. During hoisting hammer condition, control unloading valve of pressure sensor opened, pumps are no load running, pressure oil of accumulator kept pressure, which makes hammer head safe. System oil temperature doesn’t heat, energy is saving. The main hit valve’s reversing is high sensity and is good sealing characteristics. The whole is the overhead structure, the integrated assembly, without reducing the oil pipeline and high reliability.
The hydraulic system just control the upper chamber, through controlling the closing time of hit valve realizes the size of hit energy, hit valve is two stage control valve, first-level lead valve is a two-position three way directional control valve, the system requires high quality for it, should have high-frequency and also require high repeat accuracy.
Using top set structure, the internal oil route sealed on the main valve block, such structure caused the hydraulic system realized the integration, compare with oil tank adopted side set type, the piping system length reduce greatly, the energy loss reduced above 1 time, in addition through the integration, the oil route connection realized no tube connection, increased the connection reliability.
In the hydraulic system has established a safety valve between the accumulator and the bottom chamber, once hammer rod break from middle, cut-off the bottom chamber oil and accumulator immediately, thus enhanced the degree of security of operation.
The oil tank is top set type, the tank body is weldment, which uses the CO2 protection welding, conforms to JB/T5000.3-1998 and ZQ4000.3-86 "Welding General Specification Requirement" the concerned requirements, the tank body conforms to the JB/T5000.12-1998 concerned requirements after the surface treatment.
Flaw detection after the oil tank welding ceased the fat liquor leakage.
The oil tank uses enclosed type, can reduce the pollution
The hydraulic pressure station box body establishes reinforcement bar partly, causes the box body intensity to be high; The high-pressured oil route channel is unimpeded, the fat liquor resistance was small, heat gives off was few, enhanced the reliability

Liftout part
The Numerical Control hammer has liftout hydraulic station,the liftout installed in the die block,can choose the auto liftout and pedal liftout at will.
Cooling part
The main function of the cooling part is adjust the oil temperature,the cooling type have two kinds:plate type heat exchanger (water cooling)and electro cooling.。
Plate type heat exchanger(water cooling):
It mainly includes heat exchange pump group, plate type heat exchanger, water pump(user supply)、cooling tower(user supply)、water reservoir(user build)。Suck the hot oil of the oil return area of oil tank then sent to heat exchanger,heat exchange with the circulating water,back to suck area of oil tank after exchanger. The circulating water is cool water taken out from the bottom part of water reservoir by water pump(water temperature≤30℃)come into heat exchanger absorbed heat of hot oil then flow into cooling tower to cooling, flow into water reservoir after cooling.
The oil temperature better don't exceed 55℃ is a essential condition to ensure the system working normally. Therefore set oil-cooling system specially on the electro hydraulic hammer. The oil come to the plate type heat exchanger through hot oil pump, completes the heat exchange, when the system long time operation, exceed the temperature set of bimetallic thermometer discrete sampling, UC4-75 electric bell warning.
The feature of plate type heat exchanger is the heat transfer loss small, the thermal efficiency high, the structure is compact. But it must have sufficient water source and the cooling system.
Electro cooling
Electro cooling machine:Collect the cooling, heat and precision filter three large function
And has the remote control, filter chock warning functions and so on, thus guarantee the electro hydraulic forging hammer operated reliably.
Open the electro cooling machine(use NTC temperature sensor display the detection oil temperature on numeral display thermostat, and compare the detection oil temperature with the set temperature at the same time, if the oil temperature higher than the set value)start compressor.
Start cooling → condenser → expansion valve → evaporator (heat exchanger),hydraulic oil → oil tank → pump → evaporator(temperature depress)→ filter →oil tank. Circle like this till oil temperature reach set value. When the oil temperature lower than the lower limit of set ,controller start heater according to the signal send by temperature sensor.
Lubrication part
The self-lubrication device also can be adjusted by the customer, the adjustment is also the touch screen adjustment input, like how long the lubrication pump work. It can adjust by the user according to the actual situation.
Vibration isolation foundation part
The numerical control hammer foundation adopts Germany technical GERB vibration isolation device
The feature of the vibration isolation foundation:
(1)The size of base reduce more relative fixed support,leave out crossbar beam, fembedded part,saved the foundation cost and the construction time,maintenance facility。
(2)The vibration isolation effect is good,can reduce vibration 80-95%。
(3)The life high to 30-50 years,so no need rework.
(4)Simplify the leveling of machine,it can adjust when the foundation go down or incline.
(5)Reduce the vibration level of machine self and round equipment,reduced the failure rate of hydraulic press system and electro control system.
The compose of the vibration isolation device:
This system is composed of spring and stagnant damper
The function of spring is to supply elasticity cushion,reduce system natural frequency. It adopts helical spring, this spring bear high and elasticity large.
VISCO® stagnant damper have in the macroviscosity liquid cylinder body and a special shape plunger insert into liquid, the plunger do movement transform the mechanical energy into the heat energy in the liquid, this make the shock motion of forging hammer weaken to zero. Regarding attacks equipment, can absorb the impacting energy, make the equipment tends to be stable rapidly after the equipment was subject to the impact disturbance, guaranteed forging hammer's impact vibration completely steadily before next time hit, the forging hammer cannot have double hit resonating. Distance forging hammer 10, the ground oscillator measurement curve (sees following drawing)

Numerical control hydraulic die forging hammer design and acceptance standard

Voluntary standards:

Design and manufacture, assembly, testing, inspection, etc of forging hammer. based on the following:
JB/ZQ44163-95、JB/ZQ44164-95 standard
Sources of standard
GB3766-83 General technical requirements of hydraulic systems
JB2131-77 Forging components General technical requirements
GB5226-85 Machine Tools Technology
JB2738-80General Machine Tools Electricity Transmission and Control
JB2855-80 Machine Tool Painting Technology
JB3623-84 Forging Machinery Noise Measurement Method
JB1294-83 Pneumatic Forging Hammer Technology
JB8-82 Nameplate
JB2254-79 Machine Tool Rust-proof Technology
JB2759-80 Machine Tools Packaging General Technology
JB1829-86 Forging Press Machinery General Technology
JB4203-86 Forging Press Machinery Safe Technology
JB/ZQ20224-88 Electro Hydraulic Forging Hammer Reversing Valve, Hydraulic reversing valve, Hand operated direction valve, Stroke reversing valve Quality
JB/T4162-91 Ultrasound wand rolling forging method
JB/ZQ4000·9-86 Assembly General Specification
JB/ZQ4000·8-86 Pipeline and Container Welding& Rustproof General Specification
JB/ZQ4000·10-26 Painting Dressing General Specification
JB/ZQ4286-86 Packaging General Specification
JB/ZQ4000·5-86 Foundry General Specification
JB/ZQ4000·7-86 Forging General Specification
JB/ZQ4000·3-86 Weld Assembly General Specification JB/ZQ4000·2-86 Machining Parts General Specification

Advantage for Numerical Control Hydraulic Forging Hammer

1. Company advantage
Our company is the only forging equipments manufacturer to produce numerical control hydraulic die forging hammer. We provide the whole service such as design, manufacture, installation, testing and after sale service. We produce the C92K series numerical control hydraulic die forging hammer such as 6.3kj, 8kj, 10kj, 12.5kj, 26kj, 20kj, 25kj, 31.5kj, 40kj, 50kj, 63kj, 80kj, 100kj, 125kj, 160kj.
Our company is the only numerical control hydraulic die forging hammer manufacturer to public the Quality Assurance in China Industry News. You can trust absolutely in quality and after sale service.
Our company exported more machines than other hammer manufacturer. We exported 5T hydraulic open die forging hammer and 1T hydraulic close die forging hammer to India, Burma in 2002; we exported hydraulic forging hammer of more than six hundred thousand US dollar to India. It’s the biggest order in hydraulic hammer line in China.
We are the only manufacturer to export large hydraulic hammer to Europe (Romania), and we exported 5-8T hydraulic hammer and forging manipulator etc 12 sets to India in 2007.
Our company held the fifth customer special meeting which is biggest manufacturer in 2006. Nearly 600 representatives came from 29 provinces and cities as well as 30 foreign customers from 7 countries took part in this meeting.
Our company is awarded the high tech fast progress company by He’nan Province.
Our company drafted the national standard for numerical control hydraulic hammer, electro hydraulic hammer, pneumatic hammer and riveting machine.
Numerical control hydraulic hammer was awarded national Patent Award for 4 items (the patent No. is ZL200520128397.9 for hydraulic pressure setting; ZL200520128374.8 for vibration damping; ZL200520128395X for taper sleeve connecting hammer head and hammer rod; ZL200520128396.4 for hammer head guide)
2 Research advantage
Our company produced the first 6.3kj, 25kj double swage close die hammer in 1992.
Our company produced the first 2T numerical control hydraulic close die forging hammer in 2005.
We researched and developed the 16T hydraulic hammer from 2007.
Our company produced the first C41-2000kg pneumatic hammer in 2005.
3 Numerical control hydraulic die forging hammer.
C92K series numerical control hydraulic die forging hammer is digital control forging equipments witch can control the hitting energy. The hitting energy deviation is between ± 1.5%, it is the world advanced forging hammer. It has advantages as below:
Hitting energy and working procedure can be numerical controlled.
High hitting frequency, fast returning and longer die life.
The transplacement between topper and lower die is ≤0.2mm, protecting the precision forgings and utilization of material is high.
Adopting vibration isolation device made in Germany, reducing 80% vibration.
The upper and lower chamber of working cylinder of C92K series is hydraulic driven. The lower chamber of working cylinder is always connecting accumulator getting hydraulic oil, operation system just control upper chamber. When lifting hammer, it can realized by control valve (hitting valve) connecting oil tank return: When hitting, control valve (hitting valve) make upper and lower chamber connected, it can realized by differential hitting by area differential between rod chamber and non rod chamber. Hitting valve is controlled by two grade pilot valve, one grade pilot valve control two grade pilot valve, two grade pilot valve control hitting valve. Numerical system controls one grade pilot valve open-close time to realize the precision hitting energy.
Structure is compact and reasonable. Two upright columns and anvil is integrative and this structure forms “U” Frame, equipped with “X” type guide rail, making hammer head has reasonable clearance but don’t be easy to jam. We adopt vibration isolation device, then hitting vibration disappear to realize protecting environment and person’s health. And design the pneumatic safety pin to lock hammer head to prevent accident.
Hydraulic system and structure design is safety and credible, realizing high frequency and high precision hitting. Optimizing the hitting valve structure, under changing direction credible, assure no abrasion and good sealing. Integrated oil circuit connected, realize no pipe system, reduce leaking oil, strong the appearance specification. Also designing the safety valve, if hammer rod rupture, the safety valve can envelop the pressure oil month, avoid high pressure oil leak, to realize safe, operation credible.
Numerical control system controls hitting energy and hitting frequency by adopting control pilot valve of hitting valve open and close time. Adopting touching screen to put in and out data, set hitting energy by program, it can control oil temperature and problem checking.
4 The advantage of numerical control hydraulic die forging hammer
Realizing precision control for hitting energy
By accurately control closing time for hitting valve, C92K series hammer protected the energy right for forgings and don’t produce extra hitting kinetic energy, so some key parts like hammer rod, hammer rod and upper and lower die, its using life is longer more. Observation indicates that energy deviation control is about ±1.5%. For different height die, you can easily adjust start and end time, to assure energy accurate.
Return speed fast
Because the main fuel tank is connected with the lower cavity of accumulator, once the upper cavity releases pressure, the hammer head can be quickly lifted, so mold contact time is short. The performance and energy control are combined, forging hammer life can improve more than once.
High forging precision:
This hammer adopts “X” shape guide rail, and guide space can be adjusted very small and forging piece precision is high.
High material using:
Because energy can be controlled, a high accuracy system for billet, the edges of are evenly. Also because of high forging precision, top and bottom mold do not arise mistake, so a very high material utilization, fewer non-cutting has laid a foundation.
Low noisy:
Because the machine hitting energy can be controlled, from program to complete the forging, it doesn’t need to supply extra energy, the noisy is very little. The operators of traditional forging hammer listen to the voices of die to determine whether the forgings are completed. Sometimes because of mistake judge, operators used to hit more times, and they are actually redundant.
No hitting roof:
Through the accurate calculation and design of hydraulic damping system and hole size, making the hammer buffer from top. It is smooth and no hitting t top situation happened.
Lower vibration:
The hitting energy can be controlled by program, so no excess energy is generated. In the meanwhile, the hammer equipped with Germany isolation vibration, it will not impact on machine tools and residential around.
Environmental protection:
During forging process, the impact of noise is low, and because of isolation vibration absorber, vibration is small, which is an environmental protection product.
Forging quality is stabilization:
By the control of program controller, a wide range of forging processes can be deposited into the program. It can be called out and used at any time, so the same forging could get the same number of hitting energy and times to avoid the manual operation of the diversity and therefore forgings quality are more stable.



锻 压 成 形 学习提示: 锻压是锻造和冲压两者的合称。锻造又分为自由锻和模锻两类,都是制造受载大的重要零件所用的热加工方法;冲压则主要是指利用模具制造薄板零件的冷加工方法。 本章的主要教学要求是: 1)了解锻压的生产主要过程及其工艺特点。 2)熟悉自由锻的基本工序及应用范围,了解胎模锻和模锻生产。 3)了解冲压加工基本工序及模具的基本知识。 教案一 锻压成形基础知识 (30分钟讲课) 一、锻压成形原理 锻压是在外力作用下使金属材料产生塑性变形,从而获得具有予期形状尺寸和机械性能的毛坯、型材、或零件的加工方法。 塑性变形是锻压成形的基础。大多数钢和有色金属及合金都有一定的塑性,因此,它们 均可在热态或常温下进行锻压成形。 金属锻压成形在机械制造、汽车、拖拉机、仪表、电子、造船、冶金及国防等工业 中都有着广泛的应用。以汽车为例,汽车上70%左右的零件是利用锻压加工成形的。 二、 锻压成形的主要方法 锻压成形的主要方式有以下几种。 1. 锻造 将金属坯料加热到高温状态后,,放在上下砧铁或模具间,并在外力作用下产生塑性变形的方法称为锻造(如图1)。按照成形方式的不同,锻造又可分为自由锻造和模型锻造两大类。自由锻造按其设备和操作方式,又可分为手工自由锻和机器自由锻。在现代工业生产中,手工自由锻已逐步为机器自由锻所取代。锻造主要用于生产各种重要的、承受重载荷的机器零件毛坯,如机床的主轴和齿轮、内燃机的连杆、炮筒和枪管以及起重吊钩等。

图1 锻压 2. 冲压 利用冲模使金属薄板受力产生分离或变形的工艺称为冲压(如图2)。冲压一般在常温下进行,故又称为冷冲压。冲压又可分为落料、冲孔、弯曲、拉深等。冲压广泛用于汽车、拖拉机、航空、仪表及日用品工业部门。

图2 冲压

三、 锻压成形加工方法的特点
1) 锻压加工后,可使金属获得较细密的晶粒,可以压合铸造组织内部的气孔等缺陷,并能合理控制金属纤维方向,使纤维方向与应力方向一致,以提高零件的性能。
2) 锻压加工后,坯料的形状和尺寸发生改变而其体积基本不变,与切削加工相比,可节约金属材料和加工工时。
3) 除自由锻造外,其它锻压方法如模锻、冲压等都有较高的劳动生产率。
4) 能加工各种形状、重量的零件,使用范围广。


1)液气式电液锤; 2)全液压电液锤: 3)程控全液压模锻锤、 4)手动全液压模锻锤。
⑴.机身部分包括:左右机身、左右导轨、底座(自由锻)等; ⑵.砧座部分包括:砧座、砧垫、下砧块(自由锻)及相关零件等; ⑶.动力头部分包括:连缸梁、锤头、锤杆、气缸、缓冲缸、连接板、上砧块(自由锻)等; ⑷.液压站部分包括:油箱、电机——油泵组、电控卸荷阀、阀座、电控温度表、换热电机泵组、换热器、滤油器等; ⑸.专用阀、安全阀部分包括:主控操纵阀、快速放液阀、保险阀、霍尔开关等; ⑹.管路、润滑部分包括:管路支架、油气管、润滑泵等; ⑺.操纵部分:由操作手柄组合件组成; ⑻.气瓶组部分:氮气瓶、气瓶架和汇气筒、高压球阀等; ⑼.电控部分包括:主电机、冷却电机、电控箱、按钮站等; ⑽.水冷却部分包括:冷却水塔、水池、水泵、电机、水管、阀门(以上用户自备); ⑾.基础部分包括:地脚螺栓组件等。
安阳锻压机械工业有限公司在推进实施电液锤产业化过程中,凭借自身的技术力量,紧密联系用户工艺和要求,勇于攻关,解决了一系列技术难题。对电液锤进行了多项创新设计,创造出具有“安锻特色”的电液锤产品,介绍如下: ⑴.设计了“X”形导轨结构:
a.液气锤工作缸上腔是高压氮气,下腔是高压油,因此早期的电液锤很容易发生 b.采用耐磨、耐高温的导向环和具有较强补偿能力的Ky圈。 c.根据封油和封气介质的不同,选用邵氏硬度不同的Ky圈。 d.加强动力头的定位。
⑶. 解决非正常寿命锤杆断裂问题:
a.改进锤杆和锤头联接方式,依据摩擦学原理,设计出了3套件(压件、锥套、锤杆)涨紧结构,使得锤杆由原来的“双锥结构”改为“单锥结构”,大大避免了应力集中的产生,从而达到了既联接可靠又拆卸方便。锤杆寿命成倍提高。 b.锤杆表面进行了滚压处理,提高了表面硬化层,从而提高锤杆的使用寿命。
a.改进二级阀的设计,加大节流孔的面积,从而提高慢降过程中的流量和流速。 b.缩短主阀与二级阀的距离,实现“零距离”连接,从而缩短了二级阀的反应速度,消除了容积效应的影响。
⑹. 创新设计连缸梁内部结构;
⑺. 开发设计了大通径阀和二级阀;
自由锻锤的锤头运动特点是快打、快提,锤头撞顶机率高,对缓冲缸的缓冲特性要求高。 通过对早期的电液锤缓冲缸结构缺点分析,我们改进了设计,将缓冲缸和蓄能器的气腔连同,使其压力匹配,提高了防撞顶的可靠性。
从原理上可以看出,在打击过程 中上下腔要同时进出油,双腔流动,因此油速受很大的限制,否则效率会很低,最好的解决方式是降低流速。一但速度下降,要保持打击能量不变的情况(E=1/2mv2),锤头质量必须加大。而要保持较高的打击频次的话,必须降低行程。简单地说就是“大锤头、短行程”,因此全液压锤仅适用于模锻锤上,尤其适合程控的模锻锤上,而不适合对手动操作灵活性很强的自由锻上。这种理论,我们可以从国际上锻锤发展趋势得到验证。
⑴.操作机构既可手动操作,也可脚踏操作,能量的大小靠操作者控制锤头行程来实现,操作比较灵活。 ⑵.结构较简单,维修方便。
⑴.能量不能精确控制,难以实现精密锻造; ⑵.由于油压比程控锤小,因此行程较长,打击频率较小,生产效率偏低。



















  • 自由锻设备



空气锤的吨位用落下部分(包括工作活塞、锤头、上砥铁)的质量表示,常用的空气锤吨位为50 kg~750kg。空气锤的吨位主要根据锻件的材料、大小和形状来选择。



(二) 自由锻工序自由锻加工各种形状的锻件是通过一系列工序逐步完成的。根据变形性质和变形程度的不同,自由锻工序可分为基本工序、辅助工序和精整工序三类。



1. 镦粗镦粗是使坯料横截面积增大、高度减小的锻造工序。主要用于饼块状锻件(如齿轮坯);也用于空心锻件冲孔前的准备工序、拔长时为提高锻造比作准备工序等。其基本方法可分为完全镦粗和局部镦粗。如固4―3所示

为使镦粗顺利进行,坯料的高度H0与直径D0之比应小于2.5~3。如果高径比过大,则易将锻坯镦弯,高径比过大或锤击力量不足时,还可能将坯料镦成双鼓形。若不及时矫正而继续锻打,则会产生折叠,使锻件报废。为保证锻造质量,镦粗时注意以下操作要点:1) 镦粗前,坯料加热温度要均匀,表面不得有凹孔、裂纹等缺陷,否则镦粗会使缺陷扩大。2) 镦粗时,坯料容易产生纵向弯曲,可将坯料放倒,轻轻锤击加以校正。锻造的坯料要放平,防止镦弯,镦弯后应及时校正。3) 锻造中,若产生双鼓形,坯料要及时校形。通常是镦粗和校形交替反复进行,以防止锻件折叠。4) 操作时,要夹紧坯料、平稳锻击、力要重而且正,以防锻件飞出伤人。

2. 拔长拔长是使坯料长度增加、横截面积减小的锻


下操作要点:1) 锻打时,坯料每次的送进量应为砥铁宽度B的0.3~0.7倍,送进量太小,易产夹层;送

进量太大,金属主要向宽度方向流动,展宽多,延长少,反而降低拔长效率。2) 将圆截面的坯料拔长成直径较小的圆截面锻件时,必须先把坯料锻成方形截面,在拔长到边长接近锻件直径时,锻成八角形,然后滚打成圆形,如图4―4所示。3) 拔长过程中应不断翻转锻件,可用反复左右翻转900的方法顺序锻打,使其截面经常保持近于方形;也可以沿轴线锻完一遍后,先翻转1800锻打校直,然后再翻转900顺次锻打,如图4―5所示。后一种方法适用于大型坯料的拔长。拔长翻转时,应注意工件的宽度与厚度之比不要超过2.5,否则再次翻转后继续拔长将容易产生折叠。4) 锻造有台阶的轴类锻件,要先在截面分界处用圆棒或三角刀进行压痕或切肩,然后再局部拔长。5) 锻造有孔的长轴线锻件,可将已冲孔的空心坯料套人芯轴后拔长,目的是为了减小壁厚,增加长度。为提高拔长效率,可在上平、下V型的砥铁中锻打。

3. 冲孔在坯料上锻出通孔或不通孔的锻造工序,称为冲孔。冲孔分实心冲头冲孔和空心冲头冲孔(图4―6)两类。冲孔时注意以下操作要点:1)坯料应均匀加热到始锻温度,以提高塑性和防止冲裂。2)冲孔前坯料预先镦粗,尽量减少冲孔深度并使端面平整。3)为保证孔位正确,应先进行试冲,即先用冲子轻轻冲出孔位的凹痕,检查孔位准确后方可深孔。为便于取出冲头,冲前可向凹痕内撒些煤粉。4)一般锻件采用双面冲孔法,即将孔冲到坯料厚度的2/3~3/4深度时,取出冲子,翻转坯料,然后从反面将孔冲透。较薄的坯料可采用单面冲孔,单面冲孔时应将冲子大头朝下,漏盘孔径不宜过大,且须仔细对正。






  • 自由锻工艺过程







利用模具使坯料在模膛内产生塑性变形,从而获得锻件的锻造方法称模型锻造,简称模锻。模锻适用于中、小型锻件的大批量生产。模锻与自由锻相比有如下特点:(1) 可锻造形状较为复杂、内部质量较好的中小型锻件;(2) 锻件尺寸精度较高、表面粗糙度小。节约材料和工时;(3) 操作简单,生产效率高,易实现机械化和自动化;(4) 锻模制造复杂、成本高、设备昂贵、能量消耗大,模锻件的质量受到模锻设备吨位的限制,一般在150kg以下。根据不同的设备内型, 模锻分为锤上模锻和压力机上模锻。


模锻锤锤 头的上下运动具有较高的精度,可锻造各种类型的模锻件,生产效率高,设备造价较低。模锻锤有蒸汽空气锤、无砧座锤、高速锤等。锤上模锻所用的锻模分上模和下模,上模固定在锤头上,下模固定在砧座上,工作时锤头带动上模向下打击,完成锻造过程。(图4―8)为模锻工作示意图,具有一个模膛的锻模,称为单模膛模锻;具有两个以上模膛的锻模,称为多模膛模锻。模膛根据功用不同可分为模锻模膛和制坯模膛。模锻模膛分预锻模膛和终锻模膛。制坯模膛分拔长、滚压、弯曲、切断等工序模膛。

2. 压力机上模锻压力机上模锻是指在压力机上进行的模锻。包括曲柄压力机上模锻、摩擦压力机上模锻、平锻机上模锻等。一般,曲柄压力机对于低塑性材料的锻造有利,生产率高,适合大批大量生产;摩擦压力机普遍用于中、小型工厂小型锻件的批量生产;平锻机适于有头部的杆类和有孔的锻件,可进行管件的局部镦粗或胀孔,但造价高,投资大,仅用于大批量生产。

四、 胎模锻





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